(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Legacy Of Egypt"

The Contribution to Islam                  349
cessors the 'Abbasids. Wave after wave of migration converted
the country into an Arab province, in the full sense of the term.
For a long time Jews and Christians were employed as officials,
but in the course of the centuries, as their technical knowledge be-
came no longer indispensable to the administration, the whole
conduct of affairs passed into the hands of Muslims. Chris-
tians and Jews lived as 'protected' minorities, subject to the dis-
abilities and liable to the taxes imposed by their Muslim rulers.
In 868, Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Turk by birth, being appointed
governor of Egypt, declared his independence of the 'Abbasid
rulers, and set up a local dynasty (Tulunids) which lasted until
905. Thereafter for thirty years the central government was
again supreme, but in 935 Muhammad ibn Tughj, designated
ikhshid by the Caliph al-Radi, founded the short-lived Ikshidid
dynasty (935-69). The rise of the Fatimid Caliphate of the West
led to the reabsorption of Egypt as a province of a Shi fite empire
(969-1171) of which Cairo was the capital, and two centuries
passed before the country came under the independent rule of
the Ayyubid dynasty (1171-1250), of which the illustrious Salah
al-Din (Saladin) was the chief glory. The Bahri (Turkish)
Mamluks, founded by Shajarat al-Durr, widow of the Ayyubid
al-Salih, were followed in 1390 by the Burji (Circassian) Mam-
luks, whose rule was terminated by the Ottoman occupation
of Salim in 1517. So Egypt once more sank to the status of a
province. Napoleon's expedition of 1798 marks the beginning
of the modern history of Egypt. Under the rule of the Khedivial
house of Muhammad cAli (d. 1849), the country still acknow-
ledged the titular suzerainty of the Turkish Sultan, until its
official termination in 1914 following the declaration of the
British Protectorate. In 1922 Egypt's independence was pro-
claimed, subject to certain reservations, which were finally liqui-
dated by the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The late King
Fu'ad assumed the title ofmalik (king); and his son King Faruq
now rules, the constitutional head of a fuEy independent State.